We find it impossible to speak for long about living things without using terminology that is teleologial, evaluative, or otherwise normative in character. This book argues that the reason why we find such language indispensable is because all organisms literally are agents, in a strong normative sense of that term. Thus, organisms should not be viewed as machines, but rather as constituting a distinct natural kind, with normative agency as their essential property. Finally, various recent ideas are examined, drawn from various scientific disciplines (including nonequilibrium thermodynamics,... This means that normative agency constitutes a scientific problem requiring investigation. Normative agency is an inherent, objectively real property of life as such. In other words, living things are physical systems that actively strive to perpetuate themselves in existence, by acting on the world. It is further argued that the conceptual toolkit of neo-Darwinism is inadequate to this task.
P. Sudheer Kumar,T. Uma Maheswari and A.P. Padmakumari Screening and Management of Rhyzopertha dominica in Major Cereals
Pobert E Pike Tall Trees, Tough Men Rei (Paper Only)
Рождественская Е.Р. Зеркало
Любимые зарубежные сказки
Мид Р. Академия вампиров. Кровные узы. Книга 4. Пламенное сердце
Коментарии “James A. Barham Normativity, Agency, and Life”
Благодарю за очень ценную информацию. Мне это очень пригодилось.